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Emerging Global Health threats in 2018-2019

Overview of Emerging Global Health Threats

We are leaving in the 21st century. Science has got a Great Success in Medical  Fields and continue to beat the rest and upcoming challenges. But still, it is a big challenge to come out from some Emerging Global Health threats for World.
World Health Organisation(WHO) continues to tackle disease outbreaks and other health emergencies worldwide.
Let’s have a look on these Top 10 Emerging Global Health Threats

1. Pandemic Influenza (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats


Pandemic Influenza comes at 1st place in World’s top 10 global threats.
It is an epidemic of an influenza virus that spreads on a worldwide scale and infects a large proportion of the world population. emerging global health threats

These pandemics occur irregularly – there have been about 9 influenza pandemics during the last 300 years.

Emerging Global Health Threats. The Worst pandemic was the 1918 Spanish influenza pandemic being in history, Spanish influenza pandemic responsible for the deaths of approximately 50–100 million people.

It occurs when a new strain of the influenza virus is transmitted to humans from another animal species. Emerging Global Health Threats.

Influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. Emerging Global Health Threats.

Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, feces, and blood.
Variants and subtypes of Influenzavirus A

1.  Bird Flu
2. Human Flu
3. Swine Flu
4. Horse Flu
5. Dog Flu

2. Cholera (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
Cholera is a disease caused by Vibrio cholera. These bacteria were discovered in 1883. Firstly it was prevalent in the 1800s in the U.S.

In nowadays Vibrio cholera is thriving across the world. Cholera is estimated to affect between 3 and 5 million people each year, and it causes over 100,000 deaths worldwide. Emerging Global Health Threats.

It is an infectious disease that causes severe watery diarrhea, which can lead to dehydration and even death if untreated. Those patients who recover usually have long-term immunity against re-infection.

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Emerging Global Health threats In Asia, Africa and some parts of Latin America, however, people need to protect themselves against cholera by having the appropriate vaccinations beforehand, drinking only water that is boiled or from a sealed bottle and following good handwashing practices.

Oral Cholera vaccines were used in 2017, to protect 4.4 million people in nine countries: Bangladesh, Cameroon, Haiti, Malawi, Mozambique, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Somalia and South Sudan. Emerging Global Health Threats.
Cholera comes at 2nd place in World’s top 10 global threats.

3. Health in conflict (Global Health threats)


Across the world—from Yemen to Ukraine, South Sudan to the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Conflict continues to ravage health systems.

In many of these places, more people die of treatable and preventable diseases and chronic illnesses, than of bullets and bombs.

 

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Emerging Global Health threats Warring parties are increasingly attacking health facilities and healthcare workers.

Humanitarians often lack access to deliver the lifesaving food, water, and medicines that people so desperately need. Emerging Global Health Threats.

4. Diphtheria (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
Diphtheria caused by a bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae.

It primarily infects the throat and upper airways and produces a toxin affecting other organs.

Although it spreads easily from one person to another, diphtheria can be prevented through the use of vaccines.

You may also get diphtheria if you’re around an infected person when they sneeze, cough, or blow their nose.

If it’s left untreated, it can cause severe damage to your kidneys, nervous system, and heart.

Emerging Global Health Threats.
The toxins spread through your bloodstream and often cause a thick, gray coating to form in these areas of the body:

  • Nose
  • Throat
  • Tongue
  • Airway

The widespread use of the diphtheria vaccine as part of routine immunization programmes has eliminated the infectious respiratory disease in most parts of the world.

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 Emerging Global Health Threats Diphtheria is making an alarming comeback in countries suffering from significant gaps in healthcare provision.

In 2017, Venezuela, Indonesia, Yemen, and Bangladesh (Cox’s Bazar) all reported diphtheria outbreaks, requesting support from World Health Organisation(WHO) for response operations, technical guidance, and supplies of diphtheria medicines and vaccines.

5. Malaria (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
Malaria, caused by the Plasmodium parasite.It is spread by the night-time – dusk to dawn – biting female Anopheles mosquito which carries a parasite known as Plasmodium.

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 Emerging Global Health Threats A person does not know that they have been bitten because the mosquitoes don’t hum and don’t create a welt at the site of the bite.

When the mosquito bites you, this parasite is freed into your bloodstream and infects the red blood cells (RBCs).

Types of Malarial Parasites

There are four main types of malarial parasites that are known to infect humans:

1. Plasmodium vivax (P.v.) – most widely distributed
2. Plasmodium ovale (P.o.) – the rarest type
3. Plasmodium malariae (P.m.) – not as widespread
4. Plasmodium falciparum (P.f.) – the most dangerous

Each year, World Health Organisation(WHO) estimates more than 200 million cases of malaria worldwide, with over 400,000 deaths.

Approximately 90% of deaths caused by the mosquito-borne disease occur in sub-Saharan Africa, with the rest occurring in South-East Asia,
South America, the Western Pacific, and the Eastern Mediterranean.

6. Meningitis (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
Meningitis is a rare infection that affects the delicate membranes called meninges that cover the brain and spinal cord.

The swelling from meningitis typically triggers symptoms such as a headache, fever and a stiff neck.

You or your children can catch it. There are several types of this disease, including bacterial, viral, and fungal.

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Emerging Global Health Threats Meningitis is circulating along Africa’s meningitis belt? threatening 26 countries at a time of acute global shortages of the meningitis C vaccine.

The risk of large-scale epidemics is dangerously high and more than 34 million people could be affected.

More than 10% of people who fall ill with meningitis C die.

World Health Organisation(WHO) and partners support a global emergency stockpile, which counts 2.5 million doses of meningitis C-containing vaccine.
However, an additional 10 million doses will be needed to avert a major epidemic before 2019.

7. Natural Disasters (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
Disasters from natural hazards like floods, hurricanes, earthquakes, and landslides can cause immense suffering and have far-reaching health consequences for millions of people.

Monsoons in Bangladesh, India, and Nepal affected more than 40 million people, and devastating mudslides in Sierra Leone prompted fears of a cholera outbreak.
In 2017, hurricanes Harvey, Irma and Maria caused widespread destruction in the Caribbean and the United States.

8. Yellow Fever (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
It is an acute, systemic disease, meaning that it starts suddenly, and it affects the whole body. The Flavivirus causes yellow fever.

Yellow fever is a hemorrhagic condition that can lead to a high fever, bleeding into the skin, and cell death in the liver and kidneys.

If enough liver cells die, liver damage occurs, leading to jaundice, a condition in which the skin takes on a yellowish color.

A century ago, yellow fever was a source of terror decimating populations and destroying economies.

In the early 2000s witnessed a resurgence of the acute viral hemorrhagic disease in Africa and the Americas, where 40 countries are considered at highest risk.
Yellow fever in 2016, outbreaks in Angola and the Democratic Republic of the Congo were only contained after mass vaccination drives reached 30 million people.

In 2018, Nigeria and Brazil are tackling major outbreaks threatening urban areas.

9. Malnutrition (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
Malnutrition results from a poor diet or a lack of food. It happens from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems.

According to the World Health Organization(WHO), malnutrition is the gravest single threat to global public health.

Globally, 45% of deaths among children under 5 are linked to undernutrition.
Shortages of food will remain a serious challenge in the Horn of Africa in 2018.
In South Sudan in 2018, 1.1 million children under 5 are expected to be malnourished, and nearly half the population faces severe food insecurity.
In Yemen, 7 million people are at risk of malnutrition and 17 million remain food insecure.

10. Food poisoning (Global Health threats)

emerging Global Health threats
emerging Global Health Threats

Food Poisoning, Also known as foodborne illness, is caused due to the consumption of contaminated food or water.

In most cases, viruses like norovirus and bacteria like Escherichia coli (E.coli) contaminate the food.

It usually leads to diarrhea and vomiting.

Every year, 600 million peoples. Almost 1 in 10 people in the world, fall ill and 420,000 die after eating contaminated food.

In 2017, an outbreak of salmonellosis led to the recall of a French brand of contaminated baby formula from more than 80 countries and territories around the world.

South Africa is currently battling the world’s largest listeriosis outbreak on record.

The conclusion of Emerging Global Health Threats

 

In 2018, World Health Organisation(WHO) and all countries trying to pursue its policy of ‘no regrets’ in responding to health emergencies guided by the knowledge that outbreaks are inevitable, but epidemics are preventable.


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